Most of us probably think of Plato as a philosopher, but what is difficult for modern folks to understand is just how intertwined mathematics and philosophy were back in the day.

Much of Plato's philosophy was inspired by looking at the natural world and the world of mathematics (and we should probably also include a shout-out to Socrates here).  Many people may know of Plato's allegory of the cave where he compares our experience of the world through our senses to people seeing shadows on the walls of a cave and thinking those shadows were real forms.